Space weather

Solar wind speed Solar wind magnetic fields Noon 10.7cm radio flux
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WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 18, 2024 04:57 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 18 0500 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 18 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 17, 2024 16:59 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 17 1700 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 17 2200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Jun 17, 2024 11:50 am UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 17 1044 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 17 1044 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 17 1044 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 290 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 167 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 17, 2024 11:33 am UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 17 1100 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 411 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 16, 2024 20:55 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4631
Valid From: 2024 Jun 16 1200 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 17 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jun 16, 2024 19:26 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 16 1926 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 16, 2024 12:00 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 16 1200 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 16 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 20:52 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4629
Valid From: 2024 Jun 15 1200 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 16 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 14:10 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 15 1409 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 15 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 13:30 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 15 1329 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 13:23 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 15 1323 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 15 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 13:10 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 15 1310 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 12:16 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Observed: 2024 Jun 15 1157 UTC
Deviation: 27 nT
Station: HAD

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 11:48 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 15 1200 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 15 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: Jun 15, 2024 11:11 am UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 15 1145 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 15 1215 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2024 Jun 15 1103 UTC

EXTENDED WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: Jun 12, 2024 23:56 pm UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Extension to Serial Number: 567
Valid From: 2024 Jun 12 0310 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 13 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Comment: 10 MeV proton flux is fluctuating close to the 10 pfu (S1/Minor) threshold.

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

EXTENDED WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: Jun 12, 2024 14:10 pm UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Extension to Serial Number: 566
Valid From: 2024 Jun 12 0310 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 12 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: Jun 12, 2024 03:08 am UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 12 0310 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 12 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 11, 2024 23:11 pm UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 11 2251 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 528 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 11, 2024 23:10 pm UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 11 1638 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 11, 2024 02:39 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4627
Valid From: 2024 Jun 10 1705 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 11 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 21:55 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4626
Valid From: 2024 Jun 10 1705 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 11 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 19:38 pm UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 10 1811 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 10 1840 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 10 1918 UTC
X-ray Class: M9.5
Location: S19W89
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Comment: Region 3697

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 19:34 pm UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 10 1829 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 754 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 18:34 pm UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 10 1828 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 17:46 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 10 1746 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 17:45 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Observed: 2024 Jun 10 1725 UTC
Deviation: 52 nT
Station: NGK

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 16:53 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 10 1705 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 10 2200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 16:51 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 10 1705 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 10 1805 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2024 Jun 10 1634 UTC

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 11:34 am UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 10 1018 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 10 1108 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 10 1118 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.5
Optical Class: sf
Location: S19W90
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 10:57 am UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 10 1053 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Issued: Jun 10, 2024 05:35 am UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0255 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 08 0800 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 09 2140 UTC
Maximum 10MeV Flux: 1030 pfu
NOAA Scale: S3 - Strong

EXTENDED WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: Jun 9, 2024 23:37 pm UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Extension to Serial Number: 564
Valid From: 2024 Jun 08 0242 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 10 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

SUMMARY
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 100pfu
Issued: Jun 9, 2024 01:22 am UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 100pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0455 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 08 0800 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 08 2255 UTC
Maximum 10MeV Flux: 1030 pfu
NOAA Scale: S3 - Strong

SUMMARY
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Issued: Jun 9, 2024 01:22 am UTC
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0225 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 08 0625 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 08 1455 UTC
Maximum 100MeV Flux: 8 pfu

EXTENDED WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 23:55 pm UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Extension to Serial Number: 563
Valid From: 2024 Jun 08 0242 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 09 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

SUMMARY
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 20:07 pm UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0800 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 08 0800 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 08 0805 UTC
Maximum 10MeV Flux: 1030 pfu
NOAA Scale: S3 - Strong

EXTENDED WARNING
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 17:58 pm UTC
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Extension to Serial Number: 104
Valid From: 2024 Jun 08 0225 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 08 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: An enhancement in the energetic portion of the solar radiation spectrum may indicate increased biological risk to astronauts or passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights. Additionally, energetic particles may represent an increased risk to all satellite systems susceptible to single event effects. This information should be used in conjunction with the current Solar Radiation Storm conditions when assessing overall impact.

EXTENDED WARNING
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 11:55 am UTC
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Extension to Serial Number: 103
Valid From: 2024 Jun 08 0225 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 08 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: An enhancement in the energetic portion of the solar radiation spectrum may indicate increased biological risk to astronauts or passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights. Additionally, energetic particles may represent an increased risk to all satellite systems susceptible to single event effects. This information should be used in conjunction with the current Solar Radiation Storm conditions when assessing overall impact.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 10:25 am UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jun 09: None (Below G1) Jun 10: G2 (Moderate) Jun 11: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 08:13 am UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0800 UTC
NOAA Scale: S3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Radiation - Passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights may experience increasing radiation exposures. Astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity) are exposed to elevated radiation levels.
Spacecraft - Single-event upsets to satellite operations, noise in imaging systems, and slight reduction of efficiency in solar panels are likely.
Radio - Degraded or episodically blacked-out polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation.

ALERT
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 100pfu
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 05:03 am UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 100pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0500 UTC
NOAA Scale: S2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Radiation - Passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights may experience small, increased radiation exposures.
Spacecraft - Infrequent single-event upsets to satellites are possible.
Radio - Small effects on polar HF (high frequency) propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

ALERT
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 03:03 am UTC
Proton Event 10MeV Integral Flux exceeded 10pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0255 UTC
NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 02:43 am UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 08 0242 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 08 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 02:37 am UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0123 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 08 0149 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 08 0219 UTC
X-ray Class: M9.6
Location: S18W69
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 02:32 am UTC
Proton Event 100MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1pfu
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0225 UTC

Potential Impacts: An enhancement in the energetic portion of the solar radiation spectrum may indicate increased biological risk to astronauts or passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights. Additionally, energetic particles may represent an increased risk to all satellite systems susceptible to single event effects. This information should be used in conjunction with the current Solar Radiation Storm conditions when assessing overall impact.

WARNING
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 02:22 am UTC
Proton 100MeV Integral Flux above 1pfu expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 08 0225 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 08 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: An enhancement in the energetic portion of the solar radiation spectrum may indicate increased biological risk to astronauts or passengers and crew in high latitude, high altitude flights. Additionally, energetic particles may represent an increased risk to all satellite systems susceptible to single event effects. This information should be used in conjunction with the current Solar Radiation Storm conditions when assessing overall impact.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 02:19 am UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0157 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 02:04 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4624
Valid From: 2024 Jun 07 1148 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 08 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 02:00 am UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0126 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 08 0130 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 08 0146 UTC
Duration: 20 minutes
Peak Flux: 370 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 184 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 01:59 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 08 0200 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 08 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 01:54 am UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 08 0128 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 894 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 8, 2024 01:37 am UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 08 0135 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 23:54 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4623
Valid From: 2024 Jun 07 1148 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 08 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 18:01 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 07 1759 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 17:17 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1887
Valid From: 2024 Jun 07 1342 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 07 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 17:17 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 527
Valid From: 2024 Jun 07 1502 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 07 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 15:21 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 07 1517 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 15:03 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 07 1456 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 15:02 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 07 1502 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 07 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 14:24 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 07 1411 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 13:42 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 07 1342 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 07 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 13:41 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 07 1338 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 7, 2024 11:49 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 07 1148 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 07 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 6, 2024 15:34 pm UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 06 1450 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 06 1506 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 06 1522 UTC
X-ray Class: M6.1
Optical Class: 2b
Location: S17W40
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Jun 6, 2024 15:12 pm UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 06 1500 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 06 1501 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 06 1502 UTC
Duration: 2 minutes
Peak Flux: 350 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 195 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 6, 2024 15:05 pm UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 06 1503 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 4, 2024 05:55 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4621
Valid From: 2024 Jun 03 2151 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 04 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Jun 4, 2024 00:10 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 03 2359 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-0000 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

SUMMARY
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 23:10 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Observed: 2024 Jun 03 2300 UTC
Deviation: 61 nT
Station: Bou

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 23:08 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 03 2308 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 22:31 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 03 2230 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 03 2330 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2024 Jun 03 2151 UTC

CANCEL WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 22:30 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Cancel Serial Number: 225
Original Issue Time: 2024 Jun 03 2204 UTC

Comment: New Warning being issued to correct times.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 22:06 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 03 2210 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 04 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 22:04 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 03 2202 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 03 2230 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2024 Jun 03 2330 UTC

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 21:52 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 03 2151 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 04 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Jun 3, 2024 12:09 pm UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 03 1152 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 03 1152 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 03 1153 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 910 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 180 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Jun 2, 2024 20:10 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jun 03: None (Below G1) Jun 04: G1 (Minor) Jun 05: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 21:04 pm UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 01 1903 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 01 1939 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 01 2028 UTC
X-ray Class: M7.3
Optical Class: sf
Location: S18E23
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 19:49 pm UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 01 1927 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 19:34 pm UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 01 1920 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 681 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 19:26 pm UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 01 1924 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 19:02 pm UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 01 1824 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 01 1836 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 01 1850 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.0
Optical Class: 2b
Location: S16E26
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 18:36 pm UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 01 1834 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 09:15 am UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 01 0826 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 01 0848 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 01 0858 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.4
Location: S18E30
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 09:07 am UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 01 0845 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 01 0845 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 01 0846 UTC
Duration: 1 minutes
Peak Flux: 210 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 179 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: Jun 1, 2024 08:50 am UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 01 0849 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: May 31, 2024 22:21 pm UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2024 May 31 2152 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 May 31 2203 UTC
End Time: 2024 May 31 2209 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.1
Optical Class: 2b
Location: S17E34
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: May 31, 2024 22:03 pm UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 May 31 2201 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: May 31, 2024 05:19 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 May 31 0518 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: May 31, 2024 05:00 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2024 May 31 0500 UTC
Valid To: 2024 May 31 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: May 31, 2024 04:46 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 May 31 0445 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: May 31, 2024 02:33 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 May 31 0235 UTC
Valid To: 2024 May 31 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: May 30, 2024 16:32 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 May 30 1631 UTC
Valid To: 2024 May 30 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted
Issued: May 29, 2024 21:26 pm UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
May 30: None (Below G1) May 31: G2 (Moderate) Jun 01: G2 (Moderate)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: May 29, 2024 18:56 pm UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 May 29 1832 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 May 29 1841 UTC
End Time: 2024 May 29 1845 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.7
Optical Class: 2b
Location: N25E10
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: May 29, 2024 18:42 pm UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 May 29 1840 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Issued: May 29, 2024 15:49 pm UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2024 May 29 1411 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 May 29 1437 UTC
End Time: 2024 May 29 1538 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.4
Optical Class: 2b
Location: S18E62
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: May 29, 2024 15:30 pm UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 May 29 1448 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: May 29, 2024 14:54 pm UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 May 29 1421 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 May 29 1423 UTC
End Time: 2024 May 29 1424 UTC
Duration: 3 minutes
Peak Flux: 300 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 166 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: May 29, 2024 14:41 pm UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 May 29 1426 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 878 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: May 29, 2024 14:25 pm UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 May 29 1422 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: May 27, 2024 10:52 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 May 27 1051 UTC
Valid To: 2024 May 27 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: May 27, 2024 07:48 am UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 May 27 0649 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 May 27 0708 UTC
End Time: 2024 May 27 0725 UTC
X-ray Class: X2.8
Optical Class: sf
Location: S15E90
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: May 27, 2024 07:39 am UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 May 27 0705 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: May 27, 2024 07:31 am UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 May 27 0659 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1135 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: May 27, 2024 07:22 am UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 May 27 0656 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 May 27 0658 UTC
End Time: 2024 May 27 0705 UTC
Duration: 9 minutes
Peak Flux: 300 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 156 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: May 27, 2024 07:04 am UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 May 27 0700 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: May 24, 2024 05:54 am UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4616
Valid From: 2024 May 23 2225 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 May 24 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: May 23, 2024 22:29 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 May 23 2228 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: May 23, 2024 22:25 pm UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 May 23 2225 UTC
Valid To: 2024 May 24 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
May 20, 2024 200 124 840 0 * 5 0 0 4 0 0 0
May 21, 2024 191 146 1020 2 * 7 1 0 9 1 1 0
May 22, 2024 196 120 1230 0 * 6 3 0 17 1 1 0
May 23, 2024 176 130 1150 1 * 21 5 0 17 3 0 0
May 24, 2024 163 100 890 0 * 8 3 0 12 1 0 0
May 25, 2024 152 106 730 2 * 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
May 26, 2024 156 148 1110 4 * 9 0 0 1 0 0 0
May 27, 2024 170 116 830 0 * 8 0 1 18 0 0 0
May 28, 2024 166 141 950 1 * 27 0 0 8 0 0 0
May 29, 2024 171 131 820 0 * 3 6 1 23 1 3 1
May 30, 2024 175 144 860 1 * 2 1 0 4 1 0 0
May 31, 2024 179 135 800 1 * 15 1 1 8 2 1 0
Jun 1, 2024 188 194 1130 2 * 12 1 2 10 0 1 0
Jun 2, 2024 180 186 1130 1 * 15 2 0 18 0 0 0
Jun 3, 2024 186 208 880 3 * 10 4 0 11 3 1 0
Jun 4, 2024 192 224 680 1 * 6 2 0 19 1 0 0
Jun 5, 2024 195 193 835 0 * 7 2 0 9 4 0 0
Jun 6, 2024 191 149 760 2 * 8 1 0 14 0 1 0
Jun 7, 2024 184 150 1030 1 * 9 2 0 11 0 0 0
Jun 8, 2024 190 143 1010 0 * 3 7 0 8 2 0 0
Jun 9, 2024 181 148 890 2 * 5 3 0 2 0 0 0
Jun 10, 2024 178 146 840 0 * 3 5 1 4 0 0 0
Jun 11, 2024 165 95 420 0 * 5 0 0 4 0 0 0
Jun 12, 2024 165 145 620 5 * 5 1 0 10 1 0 0
Jun 13, 2024 170 124 700 0 * 5 1 0 11 2 0 0
Jun 14, 2024 169 117 660 0 * 13 1 0 6 1 0 0
Jun 15, 2024 171 134 1290 1 * 25 1 0 35 1 0 0
Jun 16, 2024 167 152 1440 0 * 26 0 0 21 5 0 0
Jun 17, 2024 180 171 1820 0 * 9 3 0 23 2 0 0
Jun 18, 2024 193 150 1690 0 * 12 2 0 10 2 0 0
Average/Total 178 146 969 30 292 58 6 348 34 9 1

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
May 21, 2024 9 2. 00 1. 67 1.
May 22, 2024 4 2. 00 0. 67 0.
May 23, 2024 10 1. 00 2. 00 1.
May 24, 2024 9 2. 00 2. 67 2.
May 25, 2024 6 1. 67 1. 67 1.
May 26, 2024 10 1. 67 2. 67 1.
May 27, 2024 8 1. 33 1. 00 2.
May 28, 2024 6 2. 67 2. 00 2.
May 29, 2024 6 0. 67 1. 33 2.
May 30, 2024 8 1. 00 1. 67 1.
May 31, 2024 12 2. 67 4. 67 2.
Jun 1, 2024 5 2. 33 1. 33 1.
Jun 2, 2024 5 1. 00 1. 00 1.
Jun 3, 2024 11 2. 33 2. 00 1.
Jun 4, 2024 8 2. 67 3. 00 2.
Jun 5, 2024 7 1. 00 2. 00 2.
Jun 6, 2024 6 2. 00 2. 00 2.
Jun 7, 2024 28 1. 33 2. 33 2.
Jun 8, 2024 14 4. 33 3. 33 3.
Jun 9, 2024 5 1. 67 1. 00 1.
Jun 10, 2024 11 1. 67 1. 00 1.
Jun 11, 2024 12 4. 00 4. 00 2.
Jun 12, 2024 5 1. 33 0. 67 1.
Jun 13, 2024 4 1. 00 0. 33 0.
Jun 14, 2024 6 1. 00 1. 33 2.
Jun 15, 2024 19 2. 33 2. 00 2.
Jun 16, 2024 13 3. 00 1. 33 0.
Jun 17, 2024 11 2. 00 3. 00 2.
Jun 18, 2024 10 2. 00 2. 67 2.
Jun 19, 2024 10 3. 00 3. 00 2.

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
May 21, 2024 8 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 1
May 22, 2024 5 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 2
May 23, 2024 10 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 4
May 24, 2024 11 2 3 2 4 3 2 1 2
May 25, 2024 6 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 3
May 26, 2024 10 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 1
May 27, 2024 9 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 3
May 28, 2024 7 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
May 29, 2024 10 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 2
May 30, 2024 10 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3
May 31, 2024 14 3 5 2 2 3 2 2 2
Jun 1, 2024 6 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 0
Jun 2, 2024 5 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 2
Jun 3, 2024 13 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 4
Jun 4, 2024 8 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 0
Jun 5, 2024 10 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
Jun 6, 2024 7 2 2 3 2 3 1 0 1
Jun 7, 2024 20 1 2 2 3 5 5 3 3
Jun 8, 2024 15 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
Jun 9, 2024 6 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 1
Jun 10, 2024 11 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 2
Jun 11, 2024 13 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 2
Jun 12, 2024 6 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 2
Jun 13, 2024 5 1 0 1 2 2 3 2 0
Jun 14, 2024 8 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 2
Jun 15, 2024 18 2 2 2 3 5 3 3 4
Jun 16, 2024 9 3 0 0 2 3 2 3 3
Jun 17, 2024 11 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3
Jun 18, 2024 11 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 1
Jun 19, 2024 3 3 2 2

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
May 21, 2024 15 2 2 1 5 4 3 2 2
May 22, 2024 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
May 23, 2024 21 1 2 2 4 5 5 3 3
May 24, 2024 21 3 3 4 5 4 4 1 1
May 25, 2024 6 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
May 26, 2024 12 2 3 1 2 5 2 2 1
May 27, 2024 15 0 2 2 6 3 1 1 1
May 28, 2024 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 0
May 29, 2024 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 1
May 30, 2024 11 1 2 1 2 4 4 2 2
May 31, 2024 18 3 5 4 3 4 2 1 1
Jun 1, 2024 6 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 0
Jun 2, 2024 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
Jun 3, 2024 11 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3
Jun 4, 2024 6 2 3 3 2 1 0 0 0
Jun 5, 2024 7 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 2
Jun 6, 2024 5 1 2 3 2 2 1 0 0
Jun 7, 2024 38 1 3 3 4 6 7 2 3
Jun 8, 2024 18 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 1
Jun 9, 2024 5 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1
Jun 10, 2024 7 1 1 1 3 0 2 3 2
Jun 11, 2024 18 5 5 3 3 2 1 1 1
Jun 12, 2024 8 1 1 2 2 3 4 1 0
Jun 13, 2024 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
Jun 14, 2024 12 0 2 4 4 3 1 2 2
Jun 15, 2024 26 1 3 3 5 6 4 2 3
Jun 16, 2024 17 3 1 0 4 5 2 4 2
Jun 17, 2024 18 2 3 2 5 3 4 3 2
Jun 18, 2024 23 2 3 4 5 5 4 2 2
Jun 19, 2024 3 3 2 3

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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